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Posts from the ‘Aluminum Industry’ Category

Power tariffs to the Century smelter at Grundartangi

The Norðurál smelter of Century Aluminum, at Grundartangi in Southwest Iceland, enjoys the lowest electricity tariff to aluminum smelters in Iceland. The only company in Iceland paying lower electricity tariff, is the ferrosilicon plant of Elkem, also located at Grundartangi.

All the three largest power companies in Iceland supply the Grundartangi aluminum smelter with electricity. The pricing arrangements in all the contracts are quite similar. All the contracts have the power tariff aligned to the price of aluminum on the London Metal Exchange (LME). In 2016, all the three power companies selling electricity to the Norðurál smelter where receiving an average price close to 20 USD/MWh (as shown on the graph at left). Note that transmission cost is included in the price shown on this graph.

For comparison, the graph also shows the power price from Landsvirkjun (LV) to the ÍSAL smelter of Rio Tinto Alcan (RTA) at Straumsvík in Southwestern Iceland. Of all the three aluminum smelters in Iceland, the Straumsvík smelter pays the highest electricity tariff. Which is not surprising, as the Straumsvík smelter has the most recent power contract. More information about recent power contracts with aluminum smelters can be seen here.

Most of the power consumed by the Norðurál smelter is generated by Reykjavík Energy, utilizing geothermal sources  (unfortunately Reykjavík Energy has been faced with major difficulties in sustaining its geothermal power production). Reykjavík Energy is called Orka náttúrunnar (ON) in Icelandic. It is a subsidiary of Orkuveita Reykjavíkur (OR), which is mostly owned by the city of Reykjavík.

The second largest power supplier to the Norðurál smelter is the national power company Landsvirkjun. Landsvirkjun generates most of its electricity in hydropower stations. In 2016, the company concluded a new agreement with Norðurál/Century, which will change the pricing method (the new agreement goes into force in 2019).

The third company selling power to the Norðurál smelter is the privately owned HS Orka, where Canadian Alterra Power is the major shareholder. Like Reykjavík Energy, HS Orka mostly relies on geothermal sources for its power generation.

As mentioned above, the cost of transmission is included in the power prices on the graph above. Each of the three power companies has to pay the transmission cost forward to the Icelandic Transmission System Operator (TSO), which is Landsnet. The graph at left should make it more clear what amount (price) the power companies are receiving for each megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity sold. On this graph, we highlight the part of the tariff that is the transmission cost (the grey part of the columns). Finally, note that readers should presume a confidence interval (uncertainty limits) of 5% regarding the Landsvirkjun-tariffs presented, and a 10% confidence interval regarding tariffs from Reykjavík Energy and HS Orka.

Power revenues from smelters declined in 2016

The average price of aluminum in 2016 was lower than the previous year (2015), resulting in lower average revenues per sold MWh for the Icelandic power firms selling electricity to the aluminum industry. In this article we present updated information on the power tariffs paid by each of the three aluminum smelters located in Iceland. Note that readers should presume a confidence interval (uncertainty limits) of 5% regarding all the tariffs presented.

One of the three smelters, the ISAL / Rio Tinto Alcan (RTA) in Straumsvík, pays a fixed base-tariff which is linked to the US Consumer Price Index (CPI). The RTA smelter in Straumsvík (green column on the graph below) receives all its electricity from the national power company Landsvirkjun. The power contract of RTA and Landsvirkjun is from 2010, with additions in 2014. Before the new agreement in 2010, the RTA-smelter at Sraumsvík was paying very low tariff, which was linked to the price of aluminum. The power contract from 2010 was extremely important for Landsvirkjun, having very positive effects on its revenues and return. This contract reflects a start of Landsvirkjun’s new pricing policy, moving away from the risky price-connection with aluminum.

electricity-price-tariffs-to-aluminum-smelters-in-iceland_2007-2016_draft-feb-2017The other two smelters in Iceland – the Norðurál smelter of Century Aluminum at Grundartangi (red on the graph) and the Fjarðaál smelter of Alcoa at Reyðarfjörður (black on the graph) – have power contracts based on the old pricing-model. Both of these two smelters have contracts with Landsvirkjun, where the power tariffs are linked to the price of aluminum at the London Metal Exchange (LME). Thus, the power tariffs of Norðurál (Century) and Fjarðaál (Alcoa) fluctuate with the price of aluminum, As the price of aluminum has been low during the last few years, the power tariffs of Norðurál and Fjarðaál have also been on the downside, as can clearly be seen on the graph at left.

Landsvirkjun’s power contract with Fjarðaál (Alcoa) is the original contract signed in 2003. The current contract Landsvirkjun has with Norðurál (Century) is a re-negotiated contract from 1999 (original contract was from 1997). As we explained in a recent article, Landsvirkjun and Norðurál have reached an agreement on new power tariff for the period 2019-2023. The new tariff will be aligned to the Elspot tariff on the Nordic power market (Nord Pool Spot; NPS), replacing the current price-link with aluminium price.

This new contract with Norðurál was concluded in 2016 and becomes effective in 2019. The contract is likely to be an important step in bringing the Icelandic power market more in line with the power market in the other Nordic countries. The next step in this development is likely to be a new contract Landsvirkjun is currently negotiating with the Chinese owned Elkem, which owns and operates a ferro-silicon plant in Southwestern Iceland. The current power contract with Elkem, where the tariff is based on price development of ferro-silicon and the exchange rate of the Norwegian krona (NOK), runs out in 2019. In recent years, the power price for the Elkem-plant in Iceland has been extremely low (lower than the power price paid by the Norðurál smelter). Probably Landsvirkjun wants a major change in the pricing methodology, developing the tariff to Elkem towards the Nordic market spot pricing model.

century-aluminum_nordural-smelter-grundartangi-icelandFinally, note that the graph above only includes power contracts the aluminum smelters have with Landsvirkjun. Two other Icelandic power firms also generate and sell electricity to the aluminum industry in Iceland. These two firms are HS Orka and Orka náttúrunnar (Orka náttúrunnar is normally referred to as ON or Reykjavík Energy). ON is in public ownership, while HS Orka is privately owned. Both companies – ON and HS Orka – mostly rely on harnessing geothermal energy for their power generation. And both have long-term power contracts with the Norðurál smelter, where the tariff is linked to aluminum price on LME. The average power tariff in these contracts is slightly higher than the tariff in Norðurál’s contract with Landsvirkjun from 1997/1999  (the red column on the graph above). The Icelandic Energy Portal will soon be introducing more information about the power tariffs in the contracts Norðurál has with ON and HS Orka.

New power tariffs to Aluminum smelters

As we explained in a recent article, the Icelandic national power company Landsvirkjun has signed a new contract with the Century Aluminum smelter in Iceland (Norðurál). In this article we will compare the power tariff in this new contract with three other recent power agreements with smelters in Iceland and Canada.

aluminerie-alouette_sept-iles-smelter_quebec-canadaIn our comparison we analysed information about four recent power contracts. They are, in addition to the new Norðurál-contract, a contract between Landsvirkjun and ISAL/RTA regarding the smelter at Straumsvík in Southwestern Iceland, a contract between Hydro Québec and Alcoa/RTA regarding the Bécancour smelter in Québec in Canada, and finally a contract between Hydro Québec and Aluminerie Alouette regarding the Sept-Iles smelter, also in Québec. These four contracts were concluded in the period 2010-2016 and they came / will come into force in the period 2010-2019 (as shown on the graph below).

Each of the four contracts are different from the others. Both of the Canadian contracts are long-term and the price of the electricity in both of them is linked to the price-development of aluminum at the London Metal Exchange (LME). However, these two Canadian contracts are based on different prerequisites, as one of them (the Aluminerie Alouette contract) involves an obligation for conducting an engineering study for a potential later expansion of the smelter.

The two Icelandic contracts do not include any price-link with aluminum. The contract with ISAL/RTA from 2010 has a fixed starting tariff, linked to US consumer price index (CPI). The tariff in the more recent contract with Century’s Norðurál is linked to power price at the Nordic power market (Elspot on Nord Pool Spot; NPS).

The contract with ISAL, which was concluded and came into force in 2010, is a long-term contract of 25 years. The contract with Norðurál, agreed in 2016, will come into force in 2019 and only has a duration of four years. The contracting parties, Landsvirkjun and Norðurál, have offered no explanation about why the time-period of the new contract is so short, but an obvious reason is the new tariff being strongly aligned with spot market price of electricity on NPS (as explained in our last post).

electricity-price-tariffs-to-aluminum-smelters-in-iceland-and-canada_new-contracts_aep-2017The graph at left shows a.o. the approximate average tariff to the Straumsvík smelter of ISAL/RTA in 2016 (the tariff can be expected to rise steadily, as it is linked to the US CPI). The power price paid by Bécancour and Alouette depend on the development of aluminum price, and the blue columns reflect the average base-tariff for these two Canadian smelters in 2016 (when average aluminum price was close to 1,600 USD/ton). The light-blue part of the tariff shows how the Canadian tariff will rise if/when aluminum price becomes 1,900 USD/ton, as recently happened.

We should add that when there is a premium paid for aluminum, as has been the norm most of the time in recent years, the Canadian tariffs will increase, according to a certain formula in the two contracts. Note that the Canadian tariffs shown on the graph are as when the premium is zero. If/when there will be a premium, the power tariffs to the said Canadian smelters will be somewhat higher.

Due to limited information, it is still not possible to claim with precision what is the new base-tariff for the Norðurál smelter at Grundartangi in Iceland (which goes into force in 2019). We do, however, know that the new tariff will be linked or aligned to the electricity price on NPS. EFTA Surveillance Authority (ESA) has stated that “Norðurál’s payments to Landsvirkjun for the electricity each month will be tied to the market price for power in the Nordpool Elspot power market (Elspot System Price reference used)“. ESA also says that “pricing mechanism and the risk associated with using the Nordpool Elspot power prices is […] in line with standard commercial practices of competing power companies in the Nordic countries”, and that the “alignment […] with the Nordpool power prices, allows Landsvirkjun to sell power at the same prices as competing companies in the Nordic countries.”

grundartangi-nordural-century-aluminum-elkem-winterWith regard to the above mentioned statements by ESA, we can assume that the new tariff to the Norðurál smelter will be similar or even the same as the tariff paid by industries in the Nordic market. Furthermore, the statements by ESA strongly imply that the new base-tariff to Norðurál is actually the same as the spot price for electricity on NPS (or at least very close to the spot price). Thus, the new tariff to Norðurál shown on the graph above is the same as the average spot price on NPS in 2016 (Elspot) – with certain part of the transmission cost added (the part of the transmission cost which is not included in the Elspot-price).

Of course it is possible that the new base-tariff for Norðurál from 2019 may be somewhat lower than the full Elspot-price, as power companies on the Nordic power market may sometimes offer its largest customers a discount from the spot-price on NPS. However, when having regard to the statements of ESA, and with regard to Landsvirkjun’s tariffs to ISAL/RTA, it seems unlikely that the new contract will be offering Norðurál large discount from the Elspot-price.

Finally, note that the assumed new tariff to Norðurál shown on the graph(s) includes the transmission cost that the aluminum firm has to pay to the Icelandic TSO; Landsnet. And note also that Norðurál will continue to pay its current very low tariff to Landsvirkjun until 2019 (when the new power contract enters into force).

electricity-price-tariffs-to-aluminum-smelters-in-iceland-and-canada_new-contracts-and-current-tariff-to-nordural_aep-2017The power tariff Norðurál is currently paying Landsvirkjun happens to be one of the lowest electricity price enjoyed by any of the world’s two hundred-plus aluminum smelters (Norðurál also buys substantial amount of electricity from two other Icelandic power firms, where the average price is only slightly higher than the tariff it pays to Landsvirkjun). Last year (2016), the average price Norðurál paid for the electricity from Landsvirkjun was well below 20 USD/MWh (transmission cost included), as shown on the graph at left (the red column). So it is obvious that the new contract, coming into force in 2019, will increase Landsvirkjun’s revenues substantially – unless we will experience extremely low prices for electricity on the Nordic Elspot power market during 2019-2023.

Landsvirkjun and Century Aluminum agree on new power tariff

new power contract between Landsvirkjun and the Norðurál smelter of Century Aluminum at Grundartangi in Iceland, was negotiated in 2016. Landsvirkjun describes this contract as an extension of the original contract from 1997. That original contract was amended in 1999, extending the validity of the original power contract to 2019.

lv-nordural-ceo-new-power-contract-2016The new extension, concluded in May 2016, changes the terms of the older contract and will enter into force in 2019. This is a fairly short-time contract/extension, expiring already in 2023. This short time frame of the contract is interesting, as all the earlier Icelandic power contracts with aluminum smelters in Iceland have applied for much longer periods (usually from 20 to 40 years).

The new contract-terms include a major change of the pricing method for energy delivered to Norðurál. From 2019, the tariff will be linked to the market price for power in the Nordic power market (Nord Pool Spot; NPS). This replaces the previous price-link to aluminum prices at the London Metal Exchange (LME), which is used in the current power contract  from 1997/1999.

According to the EFTA Surveillance Authority (ESA), the electricity tariff in the new contract is “tied” to the monthly “market price for power in the Nordpool Elspot power market”. This clear reference to Elspot may not necessarily mean that the new price will be exactly the same as the spot market power price on NPS. However, it is clear that this new pricing method, replacing the previous/current price-link to aluminium price, will make the revenues of Landsvirkjun more aligned with power prices on the Nordic and European power markets. What is also new, is that this being the first power contract with an aluminum smelter in Iceland not having the transmission cost included. Norðurál will need to pay the transmission cost directly to the Icelandic TSO; Landsnet.

nordural-century-aluminum-smelter-grundartangi-iceland-in-winterLinking the power tariff to electricity prices abroad is a new approach in the pricing of Icelandic electricity to aluminum smelters.  This new approach is a clear sign of important changes in the Icelandic power market, moving towards the development on nearby power markets in NW-Europe. The result will probably be a doubling of the current power tariff to the Norðurál smelter, when the new extension comes into effect in 2019 (depending on price development in the Nordic power market).

The new pricing method may explain why the contract was only made for a four-year period (2019-2023). When negotiations between Landsvirkjun and Norðurál were ongoing, in 2015 and early 2016, the Elspot power price at NPS was very low (close to 21 EUR/MWh on average in 2015). The management of Norðurál most likely pushed for aligning the power tariff to the then current low electricity price in NW-Europe and/or N-America, in the hope of avoiding a higher tariff, like Landsvirkjun agreed with the ISAL smelter in 2010. The ISAL smelter in Straumsvík, owned by Rio Tinto, is now paying more than 30 EUR/MWh and a little under 30 EUR when transmission cost is excluded.

Although NPS did experience very low power price in 2015, it is quite possible that the spot price on the Nordic power market will rise in the coming years. Already in 2016, the average Elspot price on NPS was close to 27 EUR/MWh (up from 21 EUR/MWh the year before). So it was obviously quite risky for Norðurál to make a long-term contract based on the Elspot price; thus agreeing on a four year contract only.

Icelink-HVDC-UK-NG-nov-2013-4Landsvirkjun may also have wanted to avoid a new long-term contract, as the necessary power capacity is already available (no new investment in power generation is needed to deliver the power to the Norðurál smelter). The main reason for such a strategy of Landsvirkjun – going for a short-term contract – is the possible construction of an electric HVDC cable between Iceland and Britain (often referred to as IceLink).

If such a subsea interconnector will be developed in the near future, it might become operational around 2025 or few years later. Such an interconnector would offer Landsvirkjun the opportunity to sell power into the high priced electricity market on the UK.  Thus, a short time power contracts makes sense for Landsvirkjun, at this point, rather than making long-term commitments regarding electricity sales to aluminum smelters. This reflects the current strategy of the Norwegian power company Statkraft, which also is focusing on the spot market development rather than making new long-term power contracts.

We at the Icelandic and Northern Energy Portal will soon be analysing this new contract/extension of Landsvirkjun and Norðurál in more details, putting the new tariff into context with other new power contracts in Iceland and Canada. Stay tuned.

The most surprising energy fact?

Here at the Icelandic Energy Portal, we are very proud of the fact that power consumption in Iceland is almost totally based on renewable power sources. And when we look at gross energy consumption, Iceland is also the green leader.

iceland-coal-consumption-2015_askja-energy-partners-2017Therefore, it may be a surprising fact that Iceland is fast increasing its coal consumption. In fact the country is becoming a major user of coal (per capita).

According to information from the International Energy Agency (IEA), coal consumption in Iceland (per capita) is now almost on pair with the coal consumption in the United Kingdom (UK). As can be seen on the graph at left.

In the coming years, it is expected that coal consumption (per capita) in Iceland will grow quite fast. And soon become close to the present world average coal consumption (per capita).

Iceland has no coal power station. The reason for the growing use of coal in Iceland, is the heavy industries located in the country. They import and use the coal in their industrial process.

united-silicon-plant_helguvik-icelandIceland has a major aluminum industry and the aluminum smelters need carbon materials for the production. Also, Iceland has a fast growing silicon industry, which also uses coal in their production. These are the reasons why Iceland is becoming such a substantial coal consumer.

The growing use of coal in Iceland in the coming years, is all related to new and upcoming silicon plants. These industrial plants are the main reason why Iceland is scoring much higher on the list of coal consuming countries, than people in general may assume.

Low aluminum price resulted in lower power tariffs

Power tariffs to aluminum smelters in Iceland are among the lowest in the world.

Power-Tariffs-to-Aluminum-Smelters-in-World-China-and-Iceland-2016Due to low aluminum price in 2015, electricity price to aluminum smelters declined in most parts of the world during 2015. The world average smelter power tariff fell by 12% in 2015, according to CRU Group. This drop can primarily be attributed to a 15% drop in China’s average power tariff. The average power tariff in the World excluding China also fell in 2015, decreasing by 8.2%.

The average power tariff to smelters in Iceland also declined in 2015, although the decline was less than in some other areas of the world. The result was that during 2015, the average electricity price from Icelandic power company Landsvirkjun to the aluminum smelters in Iceland, was approximately 2/3 of the world average tariff to such smelters.

Decreased revenues pr. MWh from smelters in 2015

Last year (2015), the price of aluminum dropped from what it was the previous year (2014). Iceland has three aluminum smelters and Landsvirkjun (the National Power Company) generates great amounts of electricity to these smelters.

One of the three smelters, Rio Tinto Alcan (RTA) in Straumsvik or ÍSAL, pays fixed power price (the tariff is linked to US Consumer Price Index; CPI). This contract between RTA and Landsvirkjun was made in 2010, with additions in 2014. The other two smelters have power contracts based on a different model, where the tariffs are linked to the price of aluminum (as the aluminum price is at the London Metal Exchange). These two contracts are from 1999 and 2003 respectively. The contract from 1999 is with the Norðurál smelter of Century Aluminum at Grundartangi, and the contract from 2003 is with the Fjarðaál smelter of Alcoa on Reyðarfjörður.

Electricity-Tariffs-to-Aluminum-Smelters-in-Iceland_2005-2015-and-likely-price-increase-to-Nordural-Century-2019_Askja-Energy-Partners-2016Because of the two contracts having the tariffs linked to aluminum price, revenues of Landsvirkjun pr. each sold MWh to the smelters in 2015 were lower than in 2014.  The graph at left shows how the power price paid by each of the three smelters developed in the period of 2005-2015. Each bar shows the average price of electricity each year, with regard to each smelter. Note that transmission cost is included in the tariffs (the average transmission cost is close to 6 USD/MWh). Landsvirkjun then forwards the transmission payment to the Icelandic TSO; Landsnet.

As can clearly be seen from the graph, the smelter of Norðurál (Century Aluminum) pays the lowest tariff. The smelter of Fjarpaál (Alcoa) pays a slightly higher tariff than Norðurál. The smelter at Straumsvík (Rio Tinto Alcan) has the most recent contract and is currently paying the highest tariff of all the three smelters.

Aluminum-Smelter-in-Iceland-WinterObviously, Landsvirkjun is taking substantial risk when it agrees on having the tariffs linked to aluminum price. At the same time the low tariffs, linked with aluminum price, make the Icelandic smelters of Alcoa and Century Aluminum almost financially risk-free operations. Century has come close to acknowledging this, by stating that its Grundartangi smelter in Iceland “generates significant free cash flow in virtually all price environments”.

Currently, a new power contract of Landsvirkjun and Century Aluminum is being negotiated (the old contract from 1999 runs out in 2019). It seems likely that Landsvirkjun will offer Century a similar deal as Rio Tinto Alcan got in 2010. Which means that from 2019, we may expect that Century’s Icelandic smelter at Grundartangi in Southwestern Iceland, will be paying close to 34 USD/MWh (in todays value), as marked with a red arrow on the graph above. However, it might be a better deal for Landsvirkjun and its owner (which is the Icelandic State) to sell the power to Europe via HVDC cable. With regard to this, it should be noted that the governments of Britain and Iceland are now in discussions on the possibility of such a cable.

NB: Power tariffs to the three smelters are estimated by Askja Energy Partners, with regard to annual reports of Landsvirkjun and several other information as published by CRU Group, EFTA Surveillance Authority, et al.

Electricity tariffs to aluminum smelters in Iceland

In this article you will find information about the electricity prices which the three aluminum smelters in Iceland paid to the Icelandic power company Landsvirkjun in the period 2005-2014. The information is based on several Icelandic and international reports.

  • The Norðurál smelter (Century Aluminum) pays the lowest tariff.
  • The Fjarðaál smelter (Alcoa) pays a slightly higher price than Norðurál.
  • The tariff to the Straumsvík smelter (Rio Tinto Alcan; RTA) is presently the highest.

Very low tariffs to Norðurál (Century Aluminum) and Straumsvík (Alcoa) are the reason for extremely low average price of electricity to aluminum smelters in Iceland. With regard to the low tariffs, it is not surprising that Century Aluminum has stated, that its Grundartangi smelter in Iceland “generates significant free cash flow in virtually all price environments”. The same situation is likely to apply to Alcoa’s Fjarðaál smelter, as it pays on average only approximately 10% higher price for the electricity than Norðurál (Century) does.

Since late 2010, the Straumsvík smelter of RTA has paid a substantially higher price for the electricity than the other two smelters. Before 2010, RTA enjoyed the lowest electricity tariff of all the aluminum smelters in Iceland. With the new contract between Landsvirkjun and RTA in 2010, the base price increased and the power tariff was no longer linked to the price of aluminum.

So far, the new contract between Landsvirkjun and RTA is the only energy contract with aluminum smelters in Iceland where the electricity tariff is not linked to aluminium price. Instead, the price in this new contract is adjusted according to US Consumer Price Index (CPI).

Although the tariff to RTA is much higher than to Alcoa and Century Aluminum, the price to RTA is quite modest. For example, it is much lower than the average price of electricity to aluminum smelters in the United States (USA). And the said tariff is similar or even lower than the average power tariff to aluminum smelters in Africa.

Aluminum-Electricity-Tariffs-to-Smelters-in-Iceland_2005-2014_and-World-Comparison_Askja-Energy-Partners-2015The graph shows the average annual electricity price paid by each of the three aluminum smelters in Iceland to Landsvirkjun, in the period 2005-2014. All prices on the graph include transmission. The red columns are the electricity price to Norðurál at Grundartangi (Century Aluminum), the green columns are the electricity price paid by the aluminum plant at Straumsvík (Rio Tinto Alcan; RTA), and the light blue columns are the tariffs to Fjarðaál in Reyðarfjörður (Alcoa). Note that readers should presume a confidence interval of 5%.

The tariff to Straumsvík (RTA) is currently approaching 35 USD/MWh. In 2014, the smelter in Straumsvík paid almost 45% higher power tariff than Fjarðaál (Alcoa), and close to 60% higher price than the aluminum smelter at Grundartangi (Century).

Landsvirkjun’s average price to the aluminum smelters in 2014 was slightly above 26 USD. Same price for aluminum smelters in Africa that year was about 30% higher, and comparable prices to smelters in the USA and Europe were close to 45% higher. For more information about average power tariffs to aluminum smelters in the world in 2014, we refer to our earlier post; Electricity Tariffs to Aluminum Smelters.

Historically, all electricity sales by Landsvirkjun to the aluminum industry has been linked to aluminum prices (until 2010). Therefore, the tariffs and Landsvirkjun’s revenues have often fluctuated dramatically – according to changes in price of aluminum on the London Metal Exchange (LME). Such fluctuation can clearly be seen on the graph above, especially with regard to the period 2008-2010. Note also that in 2006-08 the price of aluminum was exceptionally high, hence the power tariffs to the smelters in Iceland were unusually high in that period.

From 2019, more contracts with the aluminum smelters in Iceland will be expiring. With regard to the electricity price in the recent contract between Landsvirkjun and Straumsvík (RTA) and other new contracts with smelters in the world, it can be expected that the minmum tariff in renewed contracts with the smelters will not be under 35 USD/MWh (in 2014 prices), and possibly somewhat higher. We at Askja Energy Partners will be presenting frequent news and update on this interesting subject.

Electricity tariffs to world’s aluminum smelters

The graph below shows the average price of electricity to aluminum smelters in different regions of the world (in 2014). The graph both illustrates  the relative amount of aluminum production in the major aluminum production areas/countries, and the electricity tariffs. All prices on this graph include both electricity and transmission cost

Aluminum-Electricity-Tariffs-World-and-Iceland-Landsvirkjun-2014China has become the world’s largest aluminum producer. This is an interesting fact, not least when having in mind that the smelters in China pay on average much higher electricity tariffs than smelters elsewhere in the world.

Iceland is represented by red color on the graph. Note that the column for Iceland includes only the power sold to smelters from the National Power Company (Landsvirkjun). Two other power firms in Iceland also sell power to one of the aluminum smelters in Iceland (there are three smelters in Iceland, owned by Alcoa, Century Aluminum, and Rio Tinto Alcan). However, Landsvirkjun is by far the main electricity provider for the smelters in Iceland. Thus, the average electricity price to the aluminum smelters in Iceland is very close to the average price the smelters pay to Landsvirkjun. Which was just above 26 USD/MWh in 2014.

Aluminum production in Iceland is relatively unimportant in the global context (about 0.8 million tons of the total of close to 54 million tons in 2014). What is more interesting, is the fact that the electricity price the smelters pay Landsvirkjun (the average price) is one of the lowest in the world. In 2014, it was close to being exactly the same as the average price to smelters in the Middle East (which are mostly smelters in the Persian Gulf States, taking advantage of very cheap electricity from natural gas power stations). And the average price to smelters in Iceland is only slightly higher than the average price to aluminum smelters in Canada, and much lower than the tariffs to smelters in the USA.

However, the average price to aluminum smelters in Iceland is likely to increase substantially in the coming years – when major contracts are up for renegotiation.  Next such power contract is a contract between Landsvirkjun and Century Aluminum, regarding the Norðurál Smelter at Grundartangi. The present contract expires in 2019.

Aluminum and Icelandic GDP

According to recent research at the University of Iceland, direct contribution of the aluminum industry in Iceland has been around 2.9 percent of gross domestic production (GDP). This is the average percentage for the period 2007-2010. In this period, the contribution reached its maximum in the year of 2010, when it was 4.6% of GDP.


In her theses towards a MS degree in Economics at the University, Ms. Anna Guðrún Ragnarsdóttir describes how the aluminium industry has had a major influence on Iceland’s economy. The author explains how the aluminum industry can be divided into three different categories, regarding its contribution to the Icelandic GDP; direct contribution, indirect contribution and demand effects. The industry’s total contribution to the Icelandic GDP was calculated as the sum of direct and indirect contribution. The demand effects were not estimated in the thesis.

The direct contribution of the aluminum industry is estimated using a data set from Statistics Iceland. Estimating the industry’s indirect contribution was more complex. The aluminum sector now consumes almost 75 per cent of electricity generated in Iceland. When taking this part of the Icelandic energy industry into account, the total contribution of the aluminum industry to the Icelandic GDP is somewhat larger than the direct contribution, and the total contribution can be said to be 5.4-6.3 per cent annually (on average in the period 2007-2010). In 2010 this number was approximately 7.7-8.6 per cent.


In her thesis, Ms. Ragnarsdóttir explains how aluminum production first began in Iceland in the year 1969, with an output of barely 11 thousand tons annually. In the early 1990s the rate of production grew rapidly and today it is around 820 thousand tons annually. Two of the largest hydroelectric power stations in Iceland were constructed mainly to serve the aluminium industry. According to the thesis, the industry generates in total around 4,000 jobs in the country. However, almost all the aluminum products manufactured in Iceland are exported. Today, the aluminum products have approximately a 40 percent  share in the total export of goods from Iceland (which is more or less the same proportion as that of fish products).